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I am the Pastor/Teacher of Rivers of Joy Baptist Church in Minford, Ohio since August 2008.  I am married to Charity since June 14, 1969.  I have four grown children.   Having served in the local church for over forty years as Pastor/Teacher, Asso., Youth Pastor, Minister of Education, Building Upkeep, Camp Director, Sunday School Teacher, etc. Also I have worked in the public place for as many years as I have preached. Charity and her sister are co owner of Union Mills Conf. (Bakery) in West Portsmouth Ohio

First Peter 2:11 Word Study Notes

 

1Peter 2:11  Beloved, I urge you as aliens and strangers to abstain from fleshly lusts which wage war against the soul.   (NASB:

Dearly beloved, i beseech 3870 you as strangers3941 and pilgrims 3927 abstain 567 from fleshy lust 1939, which war again the soul"5590 kjv with strong’s number #

  • Greek: Agapetoi, parakalo  hos paroikous kai parepidemous apechesthaiton sarkikon epithumion, aitines strateuontai  kata tes psuches;
  • Amplified: Beloved, I implore you as aliens and strangers and exiles [in this world] to abstain from the sensual urges (the evil desires, the passions of the flesh, your lower nature) that wage war against the soul.
  • BBE:  My loved ones, I make this request with all my heart, that, as those for whom this world is a strange country, you will keep yourselves from the desires of the flesh which make war against the soul
  • Phillips: I beg you, as those whom I love, to live in this world as strangers and "temporary residents", to keep clear of the desires of your lower natures, for they are always at war with your souls
  •  
  • Wuest:  Divinely loved ones [loved by God], I beg of you, please, as aliens and those who have settled down alongside of pagan [unsaved] people should, be constantly holding yourselves back from the passionate cravings which are fleshly by nature [fleshly in that they come from the totally depraved nature], cravings of such a nature that, like an army carrying on a military campaign, they are waging war, hurling themselves down upon your soul;
  • Young's Literal: Beloved, I call upon you, as strangers and sojourners, to keep from the fleshly desires, that war against the soul,

BELOVED I URGE YOU: Agapetoi parakalo:


Romans 12:1; 2Corinthians 5:20; 6:1; Ephesians 4:1 Philemon 1:9,10)


THE PILGRIM LIFE  WE'RE JUST PASSING THROUGH!

The ESV Study Bible note on 1Peter 2:11-4:11 says believers are to be Living as Aliens to Bring Glory to God in a Hostile World. Peter explains how believers should live as exiles amid a world that rejects their message. They bear witness to the gospel when they live in a way that pleases God....those who have trusted in Christ bear witness to the gospel by their conduct.


Pilgrim - one who journeys in foreign lands. "One who comes from a foreign country to dwell by the natives of a city or land, a stranger, sojourner. Since heaven is the home of the Christian, the NT speaks of Abraham and other believers as pilgrims while on earth

  • (Hebrews 11:13; cf. Genesis 23:4; Ps 39:12)."

Beloved (27) (agapetos from agape) means dear or very much loved (in context by God their Father!). It is a love called out of one’s heart by preciousness of the object loved. The "Beloved" are those to whom Christ has shown love.

Urge (3870) (parakaleo from para = beside + kaleo = to call)

  1. means literally to call to one's side and so refers to the act of calling someone to one’s side in order to give aid or help.
  2. Urging or exhorting implies an earnest and persuasive address aimed at encouraging the readers to face their trials and inner temptations.

Yes the kjv says ,” i beseech.”  I understand that. Now as I said, go up to your child today and say “I beseech you not to go out into the street and play.” 

Some want to say that if you change the words of the kjv then you are perverting the Bible.  This of course not true.

11 Beloved, I urge you as aliens and strangers to abstain from fleshly lusts which wage war against the soul.

SO I USED   Thayer and Smith. "Greek Lexicon entry for ". "The KJV New Testament Greek Lexicon". . for the following word study of the Greek word and their meaning both in the NASV  and the KJV, (same Greek word for both)

2:11  ἀγαπητοί παρακαλῶ ὡς παροίκους καὶ παρεπιδήμους ἀπέχεσθαι τῶν σαρκικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν αἵτινες στρατεύονται κατὰ τῆς ψυχῆς   Greek

Dearly beloved           ( agapetos 27),

I beseech                      (parakaloe 3870)

you as                            (hos 5613)

strangers                      (paroikos 3941)

and                                 (kai 2532)

pilgrims                         (parepidemos 3927)

abstain from                (apechomai 567)

fleshly                             (sarkikos 4559)

lusts                                (epithymia 1939)

which,                            (hosits 3748)

war                                 (strateuo 4754)

against                          (kata 2596)

the soul                         (psyche 5590)

THE WORD STUDY DEFINITION:

Agapetos (27) Beloved

     beloved, esteemed, dear, favorite, worthy of love

    NAS Word Usage - Total: 61 beloved 60, very dear 1

    King James Word Usage - Total: 62     beloved 47, dearly beloved 9, well beloved 3, dear 3

 

Parakaleo (3870)   urge, beseech

    to call to one's side, call for, summon

    1. to address, speak to, (call to, call upon), which may be done in the way of exhortation, entreaty, comfort, instruction, etc.
      1. to admonish, exhort
      2. to beg, entreat, beseech
        1. to strive to appease by entreaty
      3. to console, to encourage and strengthen by consolation, to comfort
        1. to receive consolation, be comforted
      4. to encourage, strengthen
      5. exhorting and comforting and encouraging
      6. to instruct, teach
  • As you can see the one Greek word has these words meaning the same thing:

             NAS Word Usage - Total: 110

      appeal 4, appealed 1, appealing 2, beg 1, begging 2, beseeching 1, comfort 5, comforted 11, comforts 2, conciliate 1, encourage 6, encouraged 4, encouraging 3, entreat 1, exhort 8, exhortation* 1, exhortations 1, exhorted 2, exhorting 3, exhorts 1, given 1, implore 4, implored 9, imploring 5, invited 2, making an appeal 1, plead 1, pleaded 1, pleading 1, preach 1, requested 1, urge 17, urged 5, urging 1

       

Paroikos (3941)  (alien) (strangers)

    1. dwelling near, neighbouring
    2. in the NT, a stranger, a foreigner, one who lives in a place without the right of citizenship
    3. metaph.
      1. without citizenship in God's kingdom
      2. one who lives on earth as a stranger, a sojourner on the earth
      3. of Christians whose home is in heaven

              NAS Word Usage - Total: 4               alien 1, aliens 3

King James Word Usage - Total: 3 pilgrim 2, stranger 1

 Parepidemos (3927) (exiles,

    reside s aliens, strangers)

    Definition

    1. one who comes from a foreign country into a city or land to reside there by the side of the natives
    2. a stranger
    3. sojourning in a strange place, a foreigner
    4. in the NT metaph. in reference to heaven as the native country, one who sojourns on earth

              NAS Word Usage - Total: 3       exiles 1, reside as aliens 1, strangers 1

King James Word Usage - Total: 3        pilgrim 2, stranger 1

Apecho (568) abstain

    Definition

    1. have
      1. to hold back, keep off, prevent
      2. to have wholly or in full, to have received
      3. it is enough, sufficient
    2. to be away, absent, distant
    3. to hold one's self off, abstain

    "have" in Mat. 6.2, is modified with a prefix which changes its meaning to "have in full" and was commonly used on business receipts to mean "paid in full". No payment or service was expected to follow the close of the transaction.

     

      NAS Word Usage - Total: 17

       abstain 5, abstaining 1, away 1, away* 1, enough 1,    have...back 1, have...in full 3, have received 1, have received in full 1, off 1, receiving...in full 1

Sarkikos (fleshly)) 4559  Transliterated Word

    Definition

    1. fleshly, carnal
      1. having the nature of flesh, i.e. under the control of the animal appetites
        1. governed by mere human nature not by the Spirit of God
        2. having its seat in the animal nature or aroused by the animal nature
        3. human: with the included idea of depravity
      2. pertaining to the flesh
        1. to the body: related to birth, linage, etc
        2.  

               NAS Word Usage - Total: 7                flesh 1, fleshly 4, material things 2

              King James Word Usage - Total: 11 carnal 9, fleshly 2


     

Epithumia (1939) lust

    Definition

    1. desire, craving, longing, desire for what is forbidden, lust

             NAS Word Usage - Total: 38        coveting 2, desire 4, desires 8, earnestly 1, impulses 1,     long 1, lust 5, lustful 1, lusts 15

King James Word Usage - Total: 11    carnal 9, fleshly 2

Strateuomai 4754  wage, war

    Definition

    1. to make a military expedition, to lead soldiers to war or to battle, (spoken of a commander)
    2. to do military duty, be on active service, be a soldier
    3. to fight

        NAS Word Usage - Total: 8 active service 1, fight 1, serves as a soldier 1, soldier in active service 1, soldiers 1, wage war 2, war 1

    King James Word Usage - Total: 7 war 5, goeth a warfare 1, soldier 1

Psuche  (5590) soul

    Definition

    • breath
      1. the breath of life
        1. the vital force which animates the body and shows itself in breathing 1a
      2. of animals 1a
    • of men
      1. life
      2. that in which there is life
        1. a living being, a living soul
    • the soul
      1. the seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions (our heart, soul etc.)
      2. the (human) soul in so far as it is constituted that by the right use of the aids offered it by God it can attain its highest end and secure eternal blessedness, the soul regarded as a moral being designed for everlasting life
      3. the soul as an essence which differs from the body and is not dissolved by death (distinguished from other parts of the body)

         NAS Word Usage - Total: 101 heart 2, heartily 1, life 36, lives 7, mind 1, minds 1, person 1, persons 3, soul 33, souls 14, suspense* 1, thing

King James Word Usage - Total: 105  soul 58, life 40, mind 3, heart 1, heartily + (1537)&version=kjv 1, not translated 2

SO YOU HAVE A WORD STUDY 

Thus the First Peter 2:11

    Dearly beloved, i beseech 3870 you as strangers3941 and pilgrims 3927 abstain 567 from fleshy lust 1939, which war again the soul"5590 kjv

    1Peter 2:11  Beloved, I urge you as aliens and strangers to abstain from fleshly lusts which wage war against the soul.   (NASB)

THE NEXT STEP WOULD CROSS REFERENCE THE WORDS”

    Phrase from KJV [?]
    Correlating Verses

    I beseech
    Rom 12:1; 2Co 5:20; 2Co 6:1; Eph 4:1; Phm 1:9,10

    as
    1Pe 1:1,17; Gen 23:4; Gen 47:9; Lev 25:23; 1Ch 29:15; Psa 39:12; Psa 119:19,54; Heb 11:13

    abstain
    1Pe 4:2; Luk 21:34; Act 15:20,29; Rom 8:13; Rom 13:13,14; 2Co 7:1; Gal 5:16-21; 2Ti 2:22; 1Jo 2:15-17

    war
    Rom 7:23; Rom 8:13; Gal 5:17,24; 1Ti 6:9,10; Jas 4:1

Torrey's New Topical Textbook

Pilgrims and Strangers: Described   Jhn 17:16

Pilgrims and Strangers: Saints Are Called to Be Gen 12:1; Act 7:3; Luk 14:26,27,33

Pilgrims and Strangers: All Saints Are  Psa 39:12; 1Pe 1:1

Pilgrims and Strangers: Saints Confess Themselves 1Ch 29:15; Psa 39:12; 119:19; Hbr 11:13

Pilgrims and Strangers: As Saints They

  1. Have the example of Christ Luke  9:58
  2. Are strengthened by God Deu 33:25; Psa 84:6,7
  3. Are actuated by faith Hbr 11:9
  4. Have their faces toward Zion Jer 50:5
  5. Keep the promised in view br 11:13
  6. Forsake all for Christ Mat 19:27 
  7. Look for a heavenly country Hbr 11:16
  8. Look for a heavenly city Hbr 11:10
  9. Pass their sojourning in fear 1Pe 1:17
  10. Rejoice in the statutes of God Psa 119:54
  11. Pray for direction Psa 43:3; Jer 50:5
  12. Have a heavenly conversation Phl 3:20
  13. Hate worldly fellowship Psa 120:5,6
  14. Are not mindful of this world Hbr 11:15
  15. Are not at home in this world Hbr 11:9
  16. Shine as lights in the world Phl 2:15
  17. Invite others to go with them Num 10:29
  18. Are exposed to persecution Psa 120:5-7; Jhn 17:14
  19. Should abstain from fleshly lusts 1Pe 2:11
  20. Should have their treasure in heaven Mat 6:19; Luk 12:33; Col 3:1,2
  21. Should not be over anxious about worldly things Mat 6:25
  22. Long for their pilgrimage to end Psa 55:6; 2Cr 5:1-8
  23. Die in faith Hbr 11:13
  24. The world is not worthy of Hbr 11:38

Pilgrims and Strangers: God Is Not Ashamed to Be Called Their God Hbr 11:16

Pilgrims and Strangers: Typified Israel Exd 6:4; 12:11

Pilgrims and Strangers: Exemplified

  1. Abraham Gen 23:4; Act 7:4,5
  2. Jacob Gen 47:9
  3. Saints of old 1Ch 29:15; Hbr 11:13,38
  4. David Psa 39:12
  5. The Apostles Mat 19:27

http://www.blueletterbible.org/bible.cfm?b=1pe&c=2#s=t_refs_1153011

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Carnal, Carnally: 4559

from sarx, "flesh," signifies

(a) "having the nature of flesh," i.e., sensual, controlled by animal appetites, governed by human nature, instead of by the Spirit of God, 1Cr 3:3 (for ver. 1, see below; same mss. have it in ver. 4); having its seat in the animal nature, or excited by it, 1Pe 2:11, "fleshly," or as the equivalent of "human," with the added idea of weakness, figuratively of the weapons of spiritual warfare, "of the flesh" (AV, "carnal"), 2Cr 10:4; or with the idea of unspirituality, of human wisdom, "fleshly," 2Cr 1:12;

(b) "pertaining to the flesh" (i.e., the body), Rom 15:27; 1Cr 9:11.

Carnal, Carnally: 4560

(a) "consisting of flesh," 2Cr 3:3, "tables that are hearts of flesh" (AV, "fleshy tables of the heart");

(b) "pertaining to the natural, transient life of the body," Hbr 7:16, "a carnal commandment;"

(c) given up to the flesh, i.e., with almost the same significance as sarkikos, above, Rom 7:14, "I am carnal sold under sin;" 1Cr 3:1 (some texts have sarkikos, in both these places, and in those in (a) and (b), but textual evidence is against it). It is difficult to discriminate between sarkikos and sarkinos in some passages. In regard to 1Pe 2:11, Trench (Syn. lxxi, lxxii) says that sarkikos describes the lusts which have their source in man's corrupt and fallen nature, and the man is sarkikos who allows to the flesh a place which does not belong to it of right; in 1Cr 3:1 sarkinos is an accusation far less grave than sarkikos would have been. The Corinthian saints were making no progress, but they were not anti-spiritual in respect of the particular point with which the Apostle was there dealing. In 1Cr 3:3, 4, they are charged with being sarkikos.
.

Fleshly, Fleshy: 4559

akin to No. 1, under FLESH, signifies

(a) associated with or pertaining to, "the flesh, carnal," Rom 15:27; 1Cr 9:11;

(b) of "the nature of the flesh, sensual," translated "fleshly" in 2Cr 1:12, of wisdom; in 1Pe 2:11, of lusts; in 2Cr 10:4, negatively, of the weapons of the Christian's warfare, RV, "of the flesh" (AV, "carnal").


Strong's Number: g4560 
Greek: sarkinos

Fleshly, Fleshy:

denotes "of the flesh, fleshly" (the termination, inos signifying the substance or material of a thing); in 2Cr 3:3, RV, "(tables that are hearts) of flesh," AV, "fleshly (tables)," etc.
See CARNAL.

Note: The adjectives "fleshly," "carnal" are contrasted with spiritual qualities in Rom 7:14; 1Cr 3:1, 3, 4; 2Cr 1:12; Col 2:18 (lit., "mind of flesh"). Speaking broadly, the carnal denotes the sinful element in man's nature, by reason of descent from Adam; the spiritual is that which comes by the regenerating operation of the Holy Spirit.

Strong's Number: g1854
Greek: exo

Foreign, Foreigner:

an adverb, signifying "outside, without," is used in Act 26:11, RV, "foreign," for AV "strange," of cities beyond the limits of Palestine, lit., "unto (the) cities without," including Damascus.
See FORTH, OUTWARD, STRANGE, WITHOUT.

Note: In Eph 2:19, paroikos, lit., "dwelling near" (para, "near," oikos, a "dwelling"), denotes "an alien, a sojourner," in contrast to fellow-citizens, RV, "sojourners" (AV, "foreigners"); in 1Pe 2:11, AV, "strangers;" see also Act 7:6, 29.
See SOJOURNER, STRANGER. Cp. allotrios, e.g., Act 7:6; Hbr 11:9, 34; allophulos, Act 10:28; xenos, Mat 25:35, 38, 43; 27:7; Act 17:21, etc

Noun
Strong's Number: g1939
Greek: epithumia

Lust (Noun and Verb):

denotes "strong desire" of any kind, the various kinds being frequently specified by some adjective (see below). The word is used of a good desire only in Luk 22:15; Phl 1:23; 1Th 2:17. Everywhere else it has a bad sense. In Rom 6:12 the injunction against letting sin reign in our mortal body to obey the "lust" thereof, refers to those evil desires which are ready to express themselves in bodily activity. They are equally the "lusts" of the flesh, Rom 13:14; Gal 5:16, 24; Eph 2:3; 2Pe 2:18; 1Jo 2:16, a phrase which describes the emotions of the soul, the natural tendency towards things evil. Such "lusts" are not necessarily base and immoral, they may be refined in character, but are evil if inconsistent with the will of God.

Other descriptions besides those already mentioned are: "of the mind," Eph 2:3; "evil (desire)," Col 3:5; "the passion of," 1Th 4:5, RV; "foolish and hurtful," 1Ti 6:9; "youthful," 2Ti 2:22; "divers," 2Ti 3:6; Tts 3:3; "their own," 2Ti 4:3; 2Pe 3:3; Jud 1:16; "worldly," Tts 2:12; "his own," Jam 1:14; "your former," 1Pe 1:14, RV; "fleshly," 1Pe 2:11; "of men," 1Pe 4:2; "of defilement," 2Pe 2:10; "of the eyes," 1Jo 2:16; of the world ("thereof"), 1Jo 2:17; "their own ungodly," Jud 1:18. In Rev 18:14 "(the fruits) which thy soul lusted after" is, lit., "of thy soul's lust."
See DESIRE, A, No. 1 (where associated words are noted).

Strong's Number: g3939
Greek: paroikeo

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

denotes "to dwell beside, among or by" (para, "beside," oikeo, "to dwell"); then, "to dwell in a place as a paroikos, a stranger" (see below), Luk 24:18, RV, "Dost thou (alone) sojourn... ?" [marg., "Dost thou sojourn (alone)" is preferable], AV, "art thou (only) a stranger?" (monos, "alone," is an adjective, not an adverb); in Hbr 11:9, RV, "he became a sojourner" (AV, "he sojourned"), the RV gives the force of the aorist tense.

A-2
Verb
Strong's Number: g1927
Greek: epidemeo

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

is rendered "to sojourn" in Act 17:21, RV.

B-1
Adjective
Strong's Number: g3941
Greek: paroikos

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

an adjective, akin to A, No. 1, lit., "dwelling near" (see above), then, "foreign, alien" (found with this meaning in inscriptions), hence, as a noun, "a sojourner," is used with eimi, "to be," in Act 7:6, "should sojourn," lit., "should be a sojourner;" in Act 7:29, RV, "sojourner" (AV, "stranger"); in Eph 2:19, RV "sojourners" (AV, "foreigners"), the preceding word rendered "strangers" is xenos; in 1Pe 2:11, RV, ditto (AV, "strangers").

B-2
Adjective
Strong's Number: g590
Greek: apodemos

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

"gone abroad" (apo, "from," demos, "people"), signifies "sojourning in another country," Mar 13:34, RV (AV, "taking a far journey").

B-3
Adjective
Strong's Number: g3927
Greek: parepidemos

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

"sojourning in a strange place," is used as a noun, denoting "a sojourner, an exile," 1Pe 1:1, RV, "sojourners" (AV, "strangers").
See PILGRIM.

C-1
Noun
Strong's Number: g3940
Greek: paroikia

Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning:

"a sojourning" (akin to A and B, Nos. 1), occurs in Act 13:17, rendered "they sojourned," RV, AV, "dwelt as strangers," lit., "in the sojourning;" in 1Pe 1:17, "sojourning."

Soul:

denotes "the breath, the breath of life," then "the soul," in its various meanings. The NT uses "may be analyzed approximately as follows:

(a) the natural life of the body, Mat 2:20; Luk 12:22; Act 20:10; Rev 8:9; 12:11; cp. Lev 17:11; 2Sa 14:7; Est 8:11;

(b) the immaterial, invisible part of man, Mat 10:28; Act 2:27; cp. 1Ki 17:21;

(c) the disembodied (or "unclothed" or "naked," 2Cr 5:3, 4) man, Rev 6:9;

(d) the seat of personality, Luk 9:24, explained as == "own self," Luk 9:25; Hbr 6:19; 10:39; cp. Isa 53:10 with 1Ti 2:6;

(e) the seat of the sentient element in man, that by which he perceives, reflects, feels, desires, Mat 11:29; Luk 1:46; 2:35; Act 14:2, 22; cp. Psa 84:2; 139:14; Isa 26:9;

(f) the seat of will and purpose, Mat 22:37; Act 4:32; Eph 6:6; Phl 1:27; Hbr 12:3; cp. Num 21:4; Deu 11:13;

(g) the seat of appetite, Rev 18:14; cp. Psa 107:9; Pro 6:30; Isa 5:14 ("desire"); Isa 29:8;

(h) persons, individuals, Act 2:41, 43; Rom 2:9; Jam 5:20; 1Pe 3:20; 2Pe 2:14; cp. Gen 12:5; 14:21 ("persons"); Lev 4:2 ('any one'); Eze 27:13; of dead bodies, Num 6:6, lit., "dead soul;" and of animals, Lev 24:18, lit., "soul for soul;"

(i) the equivalent of the personal pronoun, used for emphasis and effect:

1st person, Jhn 10:24 ("us"); Hbr 10:38; cp. Gen 12:13; Num 23:10; Jdg 16:30; Psa 120:2 ("me");

2nd person, 2Cr 12:15; Hbr 13:17; Jam 1:21; 1Pe 1:9; 2:25; cp. Lev 17:11; 26:15; 1Sa 1:26;

3rd person, 1Pe 4:19; 2Pe 2:8; cp. Exd 30:12; Job 32:2, Heb. "soul," Sept. "self;"

(j) an animate creature, human or other, 1Cr 15:45; Rev 16:3; cp. Gen 1:24; 2:7, 19;

(k) "the inward man," the seat of the new life, Luk 21:19 (cp. Mat 10:39); 1Pe 2:11; 3Jo 1:2.

"With (j) compare a-psuchos, "soulless, inanimate," 1Cr 14:7.

"With (f) compare di-psuchos, "two-souled," Jam 1:8; 4:8; oligo-psuchos, "feeble-souled," 1Th 5:14; iso-psuchos, "like-souled," Phl 2:20; sum-psuchos, "joint-souled" (with one accord"), Phl 2:2.

"The language of Hbr 4:12 suggests the extreme difficulty of distinguishing between the soul and the spirit, alike in their nature and in their activities. Generally speaking the spirit is the higher, the soul the lower element. The spirit may be recognized as the life principle bestowed on man by God, the soul as the resulting life constituted in the individual, the body being the material organism animated by soul and spirit....

"Body and soul are the constituents of the man according to Mat 6:25; 10:28; Luk 12:20; Act 20:10; body and spirit according to Luk 8:55; 1Cr 5:3; 7:34; Jam 2:26. In Mat 26:38 the emotions are associated with the soul, in Jhn 13:21 with the spirit; cp. also Psa 42:11 with 1Ki 21:5. In Psa 35:9 the soul rejoices in God, in Luk 1:47 the spirit.

"Apparently, then, the relationships may be thus summed up 'Soma, body, and pneuma, spirit, may be separated, pneuma and psuche, soul, can only be distinguished' (Cremer)."*
[* From notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 205-207.]

strong's Number: g4170
Greek: polemeo

War (Verb and Noun):

(Eng., "polemics"), "to fight, to make war," is used

(a) literally, Rev 12:7 (twice), RV; Rev 13:4; 17:14; 19:11;

(b) metaphorically, Rev 2:16, RV;

(c) hyperbolically, Jam 4:2.
See FIGHT, B, Note (1).

A-2
Verb
Strong's Number: g4754
Greek: strateuo

War (Verb and Noun):

used in the Middle Voice, "to make war" (from stratos, "an encamped army"), is translated "to war" in 2Cr 10:3; metaphorically, of spiritual "conflict," 1Ti 1:18; 2Ti 2:3, AV; Jam 4:1; 1Pe 2:11.
See SOLDIER, B.

A-3
Verb
Strong's Number: g497
Greek: antistrateuomai

War (Verb and Noun):

not found in the Active Voice antistrateuo, "to make war against" (anti), occurs in Rom 7:23.

Note: For "men of war," Luk 23:11, AV, see SOLDIER, No. 2.

B-1
Noun
Strong's Number: g4171
Greek: polemos

War (Verb and Noun):

"war" (akin to A, No. 1), is so translated in the RV, for AV, "battle," 1Cr 14:8; Rev 9:7, 9; 16:14; 20:8; for AV, "fight," Hbr 11:34; AV and RV in Jam 4:1, hyperbolically of private "quarrels;" elsewhere, literally, e.g., Mat 24:6; Rev 11:7.
See BATTLE.

Battle:

"a war," is incorrectly rendered "battle" in the AV of 1Cr 14:8; Rev 9:7, 9; 16:14; 20:8; RV, invariably, "war."