About Me

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I am the Pastor/Teacher of Rivers of Joy Baptist Church in Minford, Ohio since August 2008.  I am married to Charity since June 14, 1969.  I have four grown children.   Having served in the local church for over forty years as Pastor/Teacher, Asso., Youth Pastor, Minister of Education, Building Upkeep, Camp Director, Sunday School Teacher, etc. Also I have worked in the public place for as many years as I have preached. Charity and her sister are co owner of Union Mills Conf. (Bakery) in West Portsmouth Ohio

John Calvin on First Peter 5:1-4

Verse 1 First Peter 5
In exhorting pastors to their duty, he points out especially three vices which are found to prevail much, even sloth, desire of gain, and lust for power. In opposition to the first vice he sets alacrity or a willing attention; to the second, liberality; to the third, moderation and meekness, by which they are to keep themselves in their own rank or station.

He then says that pastors ought not to exercise care over the flock of the Lord, as far only as they are constrained; for they who seek to do no more than what constraint compels them, do their work formally and negligently. Hence he would have them to do willingly what they do, as those who are really devoted to their work. To correct avarice, he bids them to perform their office with a ready mind; for whosoever has not this end in view, to spend himself and his labor disinterestedly and gladly in behalf of the Church, is not a minister of Christ, but a slave to his own stomach and his purse. The third vice which he condemns is a lust for exercising power or dominion. But it may be asked, what kind of power does he mean? This, as it seems to me, may be gathered from the opposite clause, in which he bids them to be examples to the flock. It is the same as though he had said that they are to preside for this end, to be eminent in holiness, which cannot be, except they humbly subject themselves and their life to the same common rule. What stands opposed to this virtue is tyrannical pride, when the pastor exempts himself from all subjection, and tyrannizes over the Church. It was for this that Ezekiel condemned the false prophets, that is, that they ruled cruelly and tyrannically. (Ezekiel 34:4.) Christ also condemned the Pharisees, because they laid intolerable burdens on the shoulders of the people which they would not touch, no, not with a finger. (Matthew 23:4.) This imperious rigour, then, which ungodly pastors exercise over the Church, cannot be corrected, except their authority be restrained, so that they may rule in such a way as to afford an example of a godly life.

1The elders By this name he designates pastors and all those who are appointed for the government of the Church. But they called them presbyters or elders for honor’s sake, not because they were all old in age, but because they were principally chosen from the aged, for old age for the most part has more prudence, gravity, and experience. But as sometimes hoariness is not wisdom, according to a Greek proverb, and as young men are found more fit, such as Timothy, these were also usually called presbyters, after having been chosen into that order. Since Peter calls himself in like manner a presbyter, it appears that it was a common name, which is still more evident from many other passages. Moreover, by this title he secured for himself more authority, as though he had said that he had a right to admonish pastors, because he was one of themselves, for there ought to be mutual liberty between colleagues. But if he had the right of primacy he would have claimed it; and this would have been most suitable on the present occasion. But though he was an Apostle, he yet knew that authority was by no means delegated to him over his colleagues, but that on the contrary he was joined with the rest in the participation of the same office.

A witness of the sufferings of Christ This may be explained of doctrine, yet I prefer to regard it as referring to his own life. At the same time both may be admitted; but I am more disposed to embrace the latter view, because these two clauses will be more in harmony, — that Peter speaks of the sufferings of Christ in his own flesh, and that he would be also a partaker of his glory. For the passage agrees with that of Paul, "If we suffer together, we shall also reign together." Besides, it avails much to make us believe his words, that he gave a proof of his faith by enduring the cross. For it hence appears evident that he spoke in earnest; and the Lord, by thus proving his people, seals as it were their ministry, that it might have more honor and reverence among men. Peter, then, had probably this in view, so that he might be heard as the faithful minister of Christ, a proof of which he gave in the persecutions he had suffered, and in the hope which he had of future life. (53)

But we must observe that Peter confidently declares that he would be a partaker of that glory which was not yet revealed; for it is the character of faith to acquiesce in hidden blessings.

 

Verse 2

2Feed the flock of God We hence learn what the word presbyter imports, even that it includes the office of feeding. It is for a far different end that the Pope makes presbyters, even that they may daily slay Christ, there being no mention made of feeding in their ordination. Let us then remember to distinguish between the institution of Christ and the confusion of the Pope, it being as different as light is from darkness. Let us also bear in mind the definition given of the word; for the flock of Christ cannot be fed except with pure doctrine, which is alone our spiritual food.

Hence pastors are not mute hypocrites, nor those who spread their own figments, which, like deadly poison, destroy the souls of men.

The words, as much as it is in you, mean the same as though he had said, "Apply all your strength to this very thing, and whatever power God has conferred on you." The old interpreter has given this rendering, "Which is among you;" and this may be the sense of the words: more correct, however, is the rendering of Erasmus, which I have followed, though I do not reject nor disapprove of the other. (54)

The flock of God, or, of the Lord, or, of Christ: it matters little which you take, for the three readings are found in different copies. (55)

Taking the oversight, or, discharging the office of a bishop. Erasmus renders the words, "Taking care of it," (curam illius agentes ;) but as the Greek word is ἐπισκοποῦντες I doubt not but that Peter meant to set forth the office and title of the episcopate. We may learn also from other parts of Scripture that these two names, bishop and presbyter, are synonymous. He then shews how they were rightly to perform the pastoral office, though the word ἐπισκοπεῖν generally means to preside or to oversee. What I have rendered "not constraintally," is literally, "not necessarily;" for when we act according to what necessity prescribes, we proceed in our work slowly and frigidly, as it were by constraint.

 

Verse 3

3Neither as being lords, or, as exercising dominion. The preposition κατὰ in Greek is taken, for the most part, in a bad sense: then Peter here condemns unreasonable exercise of power, as the case is with those who consider not themselves to be the ministers of Christ and his Church, but seek something higher. And he calls particular churches "lots," (cleros ;) for as the whole body of the Church is the Lord’s heritage, so the churches, scattered through towns and villages, were as so many farms, the culture of which he assigns to each presbyter. Some very ignorantly think that those called clergy are meant here. It was, indeed, an ancient way of speaking, to call the whole order of ministers, clergy; but I wish that it had never occurred to the Fathers to speak thus; for what Scripture ascribes in common to the whole Church, it was by no means right to confine to a few men. And this way of speaking was spurious, at least it was a departure from apostolic usage.

Peter, indeed, expressly gives the churches this title, in order that we may know that whatever men ascribe to themselves is taken away from the Lord, as in many places he calls the Church his peculiar treasure, and the rod of his heritage, when he intends to claim his entire dominion over it; for he never delivers to pastors the government, but only the care, so that his own right remains still complete.

 

Verse 4

4When the chief Shepherd shall appear Except pastors retain this end in view, it can by no means be that they will in good earnest proceed in the course of their calling, but will, on the contrary, become often faint; for there are innumerable hindrances which are sufficient to discourage the most prudent. They have often to do with ungrateful men, from whom they receive an unworthy reward; long and great labors are often in vain; Satan sometimes prevails in his wicked devices. Lest, then, the faithful servant of Christ should be broken down, there is for him one and only one remedy, — to turn his eyes to the coming of Christ. Thus it will be, that he, who seems to derive no encouragement from men, will assiduously go on in his labors, knowing that a great reward is prepared for him by the Lord. And further, lest a protracted expectation should produce languor, he at the same time sets forth the greatness of the reward, which is sufficient to compensate for all delay: An unfading crown of glory, he says, awaits you.

It ought also to be observed, that he calls Christ the chief Pastor; for we are to rule the Church under him and in his name, in no other way but that he should be still really the Pastor. So the word chief here does not only mean the principal, but him whose power all others ought to submit to, as they do not represent him except according to his command and authority.

Verse 5

First Peter 5:1 to 4 Verses, Translations, Strongs


1Peter 5:1 Therefore,3767 I exhort3870 the elders4245 among you, as your fellow elder4850 and witness3144 of the sufferings3804 of Christ, and a partaker2844 also of the glory1391 that is to be revealed601 (NASB: Lockman)
 
 
 
Amplified: I WARN and counsel the elders among you (the pastors and spiritual guides of the church) as a fellow elder and as an eyewitness [called to testify] of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a sharer in the glory (the honor and splendor) that is to be revealed (disclosed, unfolded):
KJV: The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:
NLT: And now, a word to you who are elders in the churches. I, too, am an elder and a witness to the sufferings of Christ. And I, too, will share his glory and his honor when he returns. As a fellow elder, this is my appeal to you: (
Phillips: Now may I who am myself an elder say a word to you my fellow-elders? I speak as one who actually saw Christ suffer, and as one who will share with you the glories that are to be unfolded to us.
Wuest: Elders therefore who are among you, I exhort, I who am your fellow elder, and one who saw the sufferings of the Christ and who has been retained as a witness to bear testimony concerning them, who also am a fellow partaker of the glory which is about to be
Young's Literal: Elders who are among you, I exhort, who am a fellow-elder, and a witness of the sufferings of the Christ, and of the glory about to be revealed a partaker

EXHORT THE ELDERS AMONG YOU: Presbuterous oun en humin parakalo (1SPAI): (Acts 11:30; 14:23; 15:4,6,22,23; 20:17,28; Acts 21:18; 1Ti 5:1,19; Titus 1:5)
AS YOUR FELLOW ELDER: o sumpresbuteros: (Philemon 1:9; 2 Jn 1:1; 3 Jn 1:1)
AND WITNESS OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST: kai martus ton tou Christou pathematon: (1Peter 1:12; Lk 24:48; Jn 15:26,27; Acts 1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:30, 31, 32; Acts 10:39, 40, 41)
AND A PARTAKER ALSO OF THE GLORY THAT IS TO BE 72; Acts 20:26,27)
EXERCISING OVERSIGHT: (episkopountes) (PAPMPN): Hebrews 12:15
NOT (forced into) UNDER COMPULSION: me anagkastos : (Is 6:8; 1Co 9:16,17)
REVEALED: o kai tes mellouses (to be about to) (PAPFSG) apokaluptesthai (PPN) doxes koinonos: (1Pe 5:4; 1:3-5; Ps 73:24,25; 2Co 5:1,8; Php 1:19,21, 22, 23; 2Ti 4:8; 1Jn 3:2; Rev 1:9)
1 Peter 5:2 shepherd4165 the flock4168 of God among you, exercising oversight1983 not under compulsion317, but voluntarily,1596 according to the will of God; and not for sordid gain,147 but with eagerness4290; (NASB: Lockman)
 
Amplified: Tend (nurture, guard, guide, and fold) the flock of God that is [your responsibility], not by coercion or constraint, but willingly; not dishonorably motivated by the advantages and profits [belonging to the office], but eagerly and cheerfully;
KJV: Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;
NLT: Care for the flock of God entrusted to you. Watch over it willingly, not grudgingly—not for what you will get out of it, but because you are eager to serve God.
Phillips: I urge you then to see that your "flock of God" is properly fed and cared for. Accept the responsibility of looking after them willingly and not because you feel you can't get out of it, doing your work not for what you can make, but because you are really concerned for their well-being. (
Wuest: shepherd the flock of God which is among you, doing so not by reason of constraint put upon you, but willingly according to God; not in fondness for dishonest gain but freely
Young's Literal: feed the flock of God that is among you, overseeing not constrainedly, but willingly, neither for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind,
SHEPHERD: poimanate (2SAAM): (Song 1:8; Is 40:11; Ezek 34:2,3,23; Mic 5:4; 7:14; Jn 21:15, 16, 17; Acts 20:28)
THE FLOCK OF GOD AMONG YOU: to en humin poimnion tou theou : (Is 63:11; Jer 13:17,20; Ezek 34:31; Zech 11:17; Lk 12:32; 1Co 9:7) (Ps 78:71,72; Acts 20:26,27)
EXERCISING OVERSIGHT: (episkopountes) (PAPMPN): Hebrews 12:15
NOT (forced into) UNDER COMPULSION: me anagkastos : (Is 6:8; 1Co 9:16,17)
BUT VOLUNTARILY ACCORDING TO GOD: alla hekousios kata theon:
AND NOT FOR SORDID GAIN: mede aischrokerdos: (Is 56:11; Jer 6:13; 8:10; Micah 3:11; Mal 1:10; Acts 20:33,34; 2Co 12:14,15; 1 i 3:3,8; Titus 1:7,11; 2Peter 2:3; Revelation 18:12,13)
BUT WITH EARGERNESS: alla prothumos: (Acts 21:13; Ro 1:15; Titus 2:14; 3:1)


1Peter 5:3 nor yet as lording2634 it over those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the flock. (NASB: Lockman)
 
Amplified: Not domineering [as arrogant, dictatorial, and overbearing persons] over those in your charge, but being examples (patterns and models of Christian living) to the flock (the congregation).
KJV: Neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
NLT: Don't lord it over the people assigned to your care, but lead them by your good example.
Phillips: You should aim not at being "little tin gods" but as examples of Christian living in the eyes of the flock committed to your charge.
Wuest: nor yet as lording it in a high-handed manner over the portions of the flock assigned to you, but as becoming patterns for the flock. (
Young's Literal: neither as exercising lordship over the heritages, but patterns becoming of the flock,

NOR YET AS LORDING IT OVER: med os katakurieuontes (PAPMPN): (Ezek 34:4; Mt 20:25,26; 23:8, 9, 10; Mark 10:42, 43, 44, 45; Lk 22:24, 25, 26, 27;


THOSE ALLOTTED TO YOUR CHARGE:2819 ton kleron:
BUT PROVING TO BE EXAMPLES 5179 TO THE FLOCK:4168 alla tupoi ginomenoi (PMPMPN) tou poimniou: (1Co 11:11; Php 3:17; 4:9; 1Th 1:5,6; 2 Th3:9; 1Ti 4:12; Titus 2:7)

 1 Peter 5:4 And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory. (NASB: Lockman)

Amplified: And [then] when the Chief Shepherd is revealed, you will win the conqueror’s crown of glory.
KJV: And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.
to the younger men to obey the elders
NLT: And when the head Shepherd comes, your reward will be a never-ending share in his glory and honor.
Phillips: And then, when the chief shepherd reveals himself, you will receive that crown of glory which cannot fade.
Wuest: And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you shall receive the victor’s unfading crown of glory. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and at the manifestation of the chief Shepherd, ye shall receive the unfading crown of glory.

AND WHEN THE CHIEF SHEPHERD750 APPEARS:5319 kai phanerothentos (AAPMSG) tou archipoimenos:
YOU WILL RECEIVE 2865 THE UNFADING 262 CROWN 4735 OF GLORY: komieisthe (2PFMI) ton amarantinon tes doxes stephanon:

1Pe 1:4; Da 12:3; 1Co 9:25; 2Ti 4:8; James 1:12; Rev 2:10; 3:11
 
 
 
I WARN and counsel the elders among you (the pastors and spiritual guides of the church) as a fellow elder and as an eyewitness [called to testify] of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a sharer in the glory (the honor and splendor) that is to be revealed (disclosed, unfolded): Tend (nurture, guard, guide, and fold) the flock of God that is [your responsibility], not by coercion or constraint, but willingly; not dishonorably motivated by the advantages and profits [belonging to the office], but eagerly and cheerfully; Not domineering [as arrogant, dictatorial, and overbearing persons] over those in your charge, but being examples (patterns and models of Christian living) to the flock (the congregation). And [then] when the Chief Shepherd is revealed, you will win the conqueror’s crown of glory.


A Brief List of Work Places

Pastor/Teacher at Rivers of Joy Baptist Church
  • Sunday School Superintendent at First Baptist Church of Haltom City
  • Former Charity and Debbie are co owner of the Bakery. at Union Mills Confectionery
  • Former Sunday School Superintendent at Portsmouth Baptist Church
  • Former Building Manager at Ashland Avenue Baptist Church
  • Former SUPERVISIOR INSTRUCTOR at Fredonia Home Town Health Care
  • Former Housekeeping/Laundry Supervisor at Tanbark Healthcare
  • Former Night Watch at Crown Point High School
  • Former Youth Pastor at Calvary Baptist Church
  • Former Amtrik builder of Sleeper car at Pullman-Standard, Inc.
  • Former Camp Director at Mansfield Baptist Temple
  • Former Camp Director at Pleasant Valley Ranch
  • Former Youth Pastor at Victory Baptist Church
  • Former Youth Pastor at Roanoke Baptist Temple
  • Studied Biblicasl NANCA Counseling at Faith Baptist Bible College
  • Studied Church Ministry and Theology at The Master's Seminary
  • Studied Master program in Biblical Theology and Biblical Counseling at Liberty University
  • Studies Master of Biblical Study at Bethel College
  • Studied Church Ministry-Christian Education at Hyles–Anderson College
  • Studied Old Testament/New Testament Studies at Bible Baptist Seminary
  • Lives in McDermott, Ohio
  • Married
  • Followed by 87 people
  • Arminian and the Reformed Position of TULIP

    In the outline below, both the Arminian and the Reformed positions are briefly stated. The Reformed position is then subdivided as necessary, and supported with scripture.


    I. TOTAL DEPRAVITY
    A. Arminian Position: Man is spiritually sick. Fallen man was seriously affected by the fall but he still has the ability to choose spiritual good. He determines his eternal destiny by either accepting or rejecting God's mercies.

    B. Reformed Position: Man is spiritually dead. Because of the fall, man has become spiritually dead, blind and deaf to the things of God and is therefore unable of himself to choose spiritual good and determine his own destiny.



    C. Scriptural Support for the Reformed Position


    1. The fall has resulted in spiritual death to all men.
    Gen.2:16 - And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;17 "but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."
    Romans.5:12 - Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned
    Eph.2:1 - Eph.2:3 And you He made alive, who were dead in trespasses and sins,2 in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience,3 among whom also we all once conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, just as the others.
    Col.2:13 - Col.2:13 And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses,
     
    2. Fallen man is now blind and deaf to spiritual truth.
    Gen.6:5 - Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
    Gen.8:21 - And the Lord smelled a soothing aroma. Then the Lord said in His heart, "I will never again curse the ground for man's sake, although the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; nor will I again destroy every living thing as I have done.
    Ecc.9:3 3 This is an evil in all that is done under the sun: that one thing happens to all. Truly the hearts of the sons of men are full of evil; madness is in their hearts while they live, and after that they go to the dead.
    Jer.17:9 - "The heart is deceitful above all things, And desperately wicked; Who can know it?
    Mark.7:21 "For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,22 "thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness.23 "All these evil things come from within and defile a man."
     
    3.Fallen man is now under the control of Satan and in bondage to sin
    John.8:44 "You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it.
    Eph.2:1-2 And you He made alive, who were dead in trespasses and sins,2 in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience
    2Tim.2:25-26 25 in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth,26 and that they may come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by him to do his will.
    1John.3:10 -10 In this the children of God and the children of the devil are manifest: Whoever does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor is he who does not love his brother.
    1John.5:19 We know that we are of God, and the whole world lies under the sway of the wicked one.
    Rom.6:20 - For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness.
    Titus.3:3 - For we ourselves were also once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.


    4. Fallen man, left in his dead state, is totally unable to repent, to believe the gospel, or to come to Christ.

    John.6:44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day. [Note: The word here translated draws is translated as drags in other passages, such as John 21:11, Acts 21:30, and Acts 16:19.]
    John.6:65 - And He said, "Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father."
    Rom.3:9 What then? Are we better than they? Not at all. For we have previously charged both Jews and Greeks that they are all under sin.10 As it is written: "There is none righteous, no, not one;11 There is none who understands; There is none who seeks after God.12 They have all turned aside; They have together become unprofitable; There is none who does good, no, not one."
    Rom.8:7 -8 7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.8 So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
    1Cor.2:14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.


    D. Key Quotations

    1.Westminster Confession of Faith IX,3
    Man by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation; so as a natural man, being altogether averse from good, and dead in sin, is not able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto.


    II. UNCONDITIONAL ELECTION
    A. Arminian Position: God's election is based on man's foreseen faith. Before the foundation of the world, God chose certain individuals for salvation based on His foreseeing that they would, of their own free will, choose Christ.

    B. Reformed Position: God's election is unconditional. God's choice of certain individuals for salvation was not based on any foreseen response of obedience on their part, but was based solely in His good and sovereign will.


    C. Scriptural Support for the Reformed Position:

    1. God has an elect people whom He has chosen to grant salvation.
    Deut.10:14 -1514 "Indeed heaven and the highest heavens belong to the Lord your God, also the earth with all that is in it.15"The Lord delighted only in your fathers, to love them; and He chose their descendants after them, you above all peoples, as it is this day.
    Matt.24:22 - 2422 "And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect's sake those days will be shortened.23 "Then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or 'There!' do not believe it.24 "For false christs and false prophets will rise and show great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect.
    Matt.24:31 31 "And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
    John.6:37 - 39 37 "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.38 "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.39 "This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.
    John.6:65 - John.6:65 (NKJ)
    65 And He said, "Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father."
    John.17:9 9"I pray for them. I do not pray for the world but for those whom You have given Me, for they are Yours.
    Rom.8:28 - Rom.8:33 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?33 Who shall bring a charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies.
    Rom.11:5 -5 Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
    Eph.1:4 - Eph.1:5 4 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love,5 having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,
    Eph.1:1111 In Him also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things according to the counsel of His will,
    1Thes.1:4 - 1Thes.1:5 4 knowing, beloved brethren, your election by God.5 For our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit and in much assurance, as you know what kind of men we were among you for your sake.
    1Thes.5:99 For God did not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,
    2Thes.2:1313 But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God from the beginning chose you for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth,
    1Pet.1:1 - 1Pet.1:2 an apostle of Jesus Christ, To the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,2 elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.
    1Pet.2:8 - 1Pet.2:9 8 and "A stone of stumbling And a rock of offense." They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed.9 But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;
    2.God's choice was not based upon any foreseen faith or good works.
    Deut.7:6 - Deut.7:86 "For you are a holy people to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth.7 "The Lord did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the least of all peoples;8 "but because the Lord loves you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore to your fathers, the Lord has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
    Rom.9:11 - 13 (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of Him who calls),12 it was said to her, "The older shall serve the younger."13 As it is written, "Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated."
    Rom.9:1616 So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.
    1Cor.1:27 -29 27 But God has chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to put to shame the things which are mighty;28 and the base things of the world and the things which are despised God has chosen, and the things which are not, to bring to nothing the things that are,29 that no flesh should glory in His presence.
    2Tim.1:9 who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was given to us in Christ Jesus before time began,


    3. Faith and good works are the result, not the ground of predestination.

    Acts.13:48 Now when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and glorified the word of the Lord. And as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.
    Acts.18:27 And when he desired to cross to Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him; and when he arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace;
    Eph.1:12 -that we who first trusted in Christ should be to the praise of His glory.
    Eph.2:10 - For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.
    Phil.1:29 - For to you it has been granted on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake,
    Phil.2:12 - Phil.2:13 12 Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling;13 for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure.
    1Thes.1:4-5 knowing, beloved brethren, your election by God.5 For our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit and in much assurance, as you know what kind of men we were among you for your sake.
    2Thes.2:13 - 14 13 But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God from the beginning chose you for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth,14 to which He called you by our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
    2Pet.1:5 - 11 5 But also for this very reason, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, to virtue knowledge,6 to knowledge self-control, to self-control perseverance, to perseverance godliness,7 to godliness brotherly kindness, and to brotherly kindness love.8 For if these things are yours and abound, you will be neither barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.9 For he who lacks these things is shortsighted, even to blindness, and has forgotten that he was cleansed from his old sins.10 Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble;11 for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.


    4. The Biblical term foreknew (Rom. 8:29) means to forelove to set regard upon, to know with a particular interest, delight, affection or action, to foreordain.

    Amos 3:2 - 2 "You only have I known of all the families of the earth; Therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities."
    Jer.1:5 5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you; Before you were born I sanctified you; I ordained you a prophet to the nations."
    Mat.7:22 "Many will say to Me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in Your name?'23 "And then I will declare to them, 'I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!'
    1Cor.8:3 But if anyone loves God, this one is known by Him.
    2Tim.2:19 Nevertheless the solid foundation of God stands, having this seal: "The Lord knows those who are His," and, "Let everyone who names the name of Christ depart from iniquity."
    1Pet.1:20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you


    D. Key Quotations

    1. Westminster Confession of Faith III,5
    Those of mankind that are predestined to life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to His eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel of good pleasure of His will, has chosen, in Christ, to everlasting glory, out of His mere free grace and love, without any foresight of faith, or good works, or Perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving Him thereunto; and all to the praise of His glorious grace.


    III. LIMITED ATONEMENT
    A. Arminian Position: Christ's death was designed to make salvation possible for all people. Christ's death made salvation possible for everyone, but it did not actually secure or guarantee the salvation of anyone. Fallen man determines whether or not Christ's work will be effective by his faith.

    B. Reformed Position: Christ's death was designed to actually secure the salvation of all of God's chosen people. Christ's death secured and actually accomplished the salvation of all of God's chosen people. God has determined that all for whom Christ sacrificed Himself will be saved.


    C. Scriptural Support for the Reformed Position


    1. Christ's death is set forth in scripture as that which ACTUALLY accomplished salvation, not that which merely made salvation possible.
    Rom.5:8 - But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.9 Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.10 For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.
    2Cor.5:18 Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation,19 that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation.
    Eph.2:15 - having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two, thus making peace,16 and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity.
    Col.1:21 And you, who once were alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now He has reconciled22 in the body of His flesh through death, to present you holy, and blameless, and above reproach in His sight
    Gal.3:13 Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree"),
    Titus.2:14 - who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous for good works.
    Heb.9:12 Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.
    Luke.19:10 "for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost."
    1Tim.1:15 This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.



    2. Jesus Christ was sent into the world to save the people whom the Father had given Him.


    John.6:35-40 35 And Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst.36 "But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe.37 "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.38 "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.39 "This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.40 "And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day."
    John.10:11"I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep.
    John.10:14-18 "I am the good shepherd; and I know My sheep, and am known by My own.15 "As the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.16 "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.17 "Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again.18 "No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father."
    John.10:24 -29 24 Then the Jews surrounded Him and said to Him, "How long do You keep us in doubt? If You are the Christ, tell us plainly."25 Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in My Father's name, they bear witness of Me.26 "But you do not believe, because you are not of My sheep, as I said to you.27 "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.28 "And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand.29 "My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father's hand.
    Eph.1:3 -4 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,4 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love,
    Eph.1:7 In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of His grace
    Eph.1:13 In Him you also trusted, after you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom also, having believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise,


    3.Christ's sacrificial and intercessory work as high priest is for those the Father had given Him, not for the world.
    John.17:1 - John.17:11
    1 Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said: "Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You,2 "as You have given Him authority over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as You have given Him.3 "And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.4 "I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work which You have given Me to do.5 "And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.6 "I have manifested Your name to the men whom You have given Me out of the world. They were Yours, You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word.7 "Now they have known that all things which You have given Me are from You.8 "For I have given to them the words which You have given Me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came forth from You; and they have believed that You sent Me.9 "I pray for them. I do not pray for the world but for those whom You have given Me, for they are Yours.10 "And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them.11 "Now I am no longer in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to You. Holy Father, keep through Your name those whom You have given Me, that they may be one as We are.

    John.17:20 "I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word;
    John.17:24-26 "Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.25 "O righteous Father! The world has not known You, but I have known You; and these have known that You sent Me.26 "And I have declared to them Your name, and will declare it, that the love with which You loved Me may be in them, and I in them."
    Heb.2:17 Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.
    Heb.3:1 Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Christ Jesus,
    Heb.9:28 so Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation.


    4. Christ's saving work was intended to save a particular people.

    Matt.1:21 "And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins."
    John.10:11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep.
    John.10:15 - "As the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.
    John.10:26 - "But you do not believe, because you are not of My sheep, as I said to you.
    Acts.20:28 -28 "Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.
    Eph.5:25 -27 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her,26 that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word,27 that He might present her to Himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that she should be holy and without blemish.
    Rom.8:32 -34 Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?33 Who shall bring a charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies.34 Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.
    John.15:13 love has no one than this, than to lay down one's life for his friends.
    Matt.20:28 "just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."
    Matt.26:28 "For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
    Heb.9:28 Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation.


    5. Those for whom Christ died are an innumerable host from every tribe, tongue, people and nation in the world.

    Rev.5:9 - And they sang a new song, saying: "You are worthy to take the scroll, And to open its seals; For You were slain, And have redeemed us to God by Your blood Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation,
    John.3:16 - "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.17 "For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.
    John.4:42 Then they said to the woman, "Now we believe, not because of what you said, for we ourselves have heard Him and we know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world."
    2Cor.5:19 that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation.
    1John.2:1 -2 My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.2 And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the whole world.
    1John.4:14 And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as Savior of the world.
    Rom.5:18 Therefore, as through one man's offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man's righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life.
    2Cor.5:14 For the love of Christ compels us, because we judge thus: that if One died for all, then all died;15 and He died for all, that those who live should live no longer for themselves, but for Him who died for them and rose again.
    1Tim.2:4 -6 who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.5 For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus,6 who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time,
    Heb.2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone.
    2Pet.3:9 the Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.


    Note: The Bible often uses the words all and world in a restricted, limited sense.

    Luke.2:1 And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered.2 This census first took place while Quirinius was governing Syria.
    1Cor.6:12 - All things are lawful for me, but all things are not helpful. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the power of any.
    1Cor.10:23 - All things are lawful for me, but not all things are helpful; all things are lawful for me, but not all things edify.
    John.12:32 - I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all peoples to Myself."
    1Cor.15:22 - For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.


    D. Key Quotations
    1. Westminster Confession of Faith III,6 & VIII,5
    As God has appointed the elect to glory, so has He, by the eternal and most free purpose of His will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore, they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called to faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by His power, through faith, to salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only. The Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience, and sacrifice of Himself, which He, through the eternal Spirit, once offered up to God, has fully satisfied the justice of His Father; and purchased, not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father has given Him.


    2. Dr. John Owen (Vice Chancellor - Oxford)

    FOR WHOM DID CHRIST DIE?
    The Father imposed His wrath due unto, and the Son underwent punishment for either:
    1) All the sins of all men;
    2) All the sins of some men; or
    3) Some of the sins of all men.
    In which case it may be said:
    1) If the last be true all men have some sins to answer for, and so none are saved;
    2) That if the second be true, then Christ, in their stead suffered for all the sins of the elect in the whole world, and this is the truth;
    3) But if the first is the case, why are not all men free from the punishment due unto their sins? You answer, Because of unbelief. I ask, Is this unbelief a sin, or is it not? If it be, then Christ suffered the punishment due unto it, or He did not. If He did, why must that hinder them more than their other sins for which He died? If He did not, He did not die for all their sins!


    3. Charles Haddon Spurgeon

    We are often told that we limit the atonement of Christ, because we say that Christ has not made a satisfaction for all men, or that all men would be saved. Now, our reply to this is that, on the other hand, our opponents limit it: we do not. The Arminians say, Christ died for all men. Ask them what they mean by it. Did Christ die so as to secure the salvation of all men? They say, "No, certainly not." We ask them the next question--Did Christ die so as to secure the salvation of any man in particular? They answer, "No." They are obliged to admit this, if they are consistent. They say, "No, Christ has died that any man may be saved if"--and then follow certain conditions of salvation. Now who is it that limits the death of Christ? Why you. You say that Christ did not die so as infallibly to secure the salvation of anybody. We beg your pardon when you say we limit Christ's death; we say, "No my dear sir, it is you that do it." We say Christ so died that he infallibly secured the salvation of a multitude that no man can number, who through Christ's death not only may be saved, but are saved, must be saved and cannot by any possibility run the hazard of being anything but saved.


    IV. IRRESISTIBLE GRACE
    A. Arminian Position: The Holy Spirit cannot regenerate fallen man until he believes. The Holy Spirit does all He can to bring every fallen man to salvation, but until fallen man responds in faith, of his own free will, the Spirit cannot give life. Faith preceded and makes possible the New Birth. Faith gives Life.

    B. Reformed Position: The Holy Spirit regenerates every one of God's chosen people, enabling them to believe. The Holy Spirit graciously regenerates every one of God's chosen people, creating within them a new heart and enabling them to freely and willingly believe in Christ as Savior and Lord. The New Birth precedes and makes possible Saving Faith. Life gives Faith.



    C. Scriptural Support for the Reformed Position:

    1. Every one whom the Father has chosen and for whom Christ died, will certainly experience the application of that salvation by the Holy Spirit.
    John.6:37All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.
    John 6:44 -"No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.
    John 10:16 - "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.
    Rom.8:28 - And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.
    Rom.8:32 - He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?
    1Cor.6:11 - And such were some of you. But you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God.
    1Cor.12:3 -Therefore I make known to you that no one speaking by the Spirit of God calls Jesus accursed, and no one can say that Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit.
    2Cor.3:6- who also made us sufficient as ministers of the new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.
    2Cor.3:17 -Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.18 But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.
    Eph.1:3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,4 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love,
    Eph.1:7 In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of His grace
    Eph.1:13 -In Him you also trusted, after you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom also, having believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise,14 who is the guarantee of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of His glory.
    1Pet.1:2 - elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.


    2. Spiritual Regeneration is an inward change in man performed solely by the Holy Spirit and is not dependent upon man's help or cooperation.

    A New Birth
    John 1:12 - as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name:13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
    Rom.9:16 - then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.
    John 3:3 -8 Jesus answered and said to him, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God."4 Nicodemus said to Him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?"5 Jesus answered, "Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.6 "That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.7 "Do not marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born again.'8 "The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear the sound of it, but cannot tell where it comes from and where it goes. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit."
    1Pet.1:3 -Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His abundant mercy has begotten us again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
    1Pet.1:23 - having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever,
    1John 5:4 -For whatever is born of God overcomes the world. And this is the victory that has overcome the world our faith.
    Titus 3:5 not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit,


    A New Heart

    Deut.30:6 - "And the Lord your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, that you may live.
    Ezek.36:26 - "I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.27 "I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them.


    A New Creation

    2Cor.5:17 - Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.18 Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation,
    Gal.6:15 - For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation.
    Eph.2:10 -For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.


    A Resurrection
    Jn.5:21 -"For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will.
    Jn.11:14, 15, 25, 38-44 Then Jesus said to them plainly, "Lazarus is dead.15 "And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, that you may believe. Nevertheless let us go to him." 25 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live. 38 Then Jesus, again groaning in Himself, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone lay against it.39 Jesus said, "Take away the stone." Martha, the sister of him who was dead, said to Him, "Lord, by this time there is a stench, for he has been dead four days."40 Jesus said to her, "Did I not say to you that if you would believe you would see the glory of God?"41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. And Jesus lifted up His eyes and said, "Father, I thank You that You have heard Me.42 "And I know that You always hear Me, but because of the people who are standing by I said this, that they may believe that You sent Me."43 Now when He had said these things, He cried with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come forth!"44 And he who had died came out bound hand and foot with graveclothes, and his face was wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Loose him, and let him go."
    Eph.2:1 - And you He made alive, who were dead in trespasses and sins,
    Eph.2:5 - when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved),
    Col.2:13 And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses,


    A Gift

    Jn.17:2 "as You have given Him authority over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as You have given Him.
    1Cor.4:7 For who makes you differ from another? And what do you have that you did not receive? Now if you did indeed receive it, why do you boast as if you had not received it?
    Eph.2:8 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God,9 not of works, lest anyone should boast.


    3. Repentance and Faith are divine gifts which are the result, not the cause, of the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit.

    Acts.5:31 - Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.
    Acts.11:18 - When they heard these things they became silent; and they glorified God, saying, "Then God has also granted to the Gentiles repentance to life."
    Acts.13:48 - Now when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and glorified the word of the Lord. And as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.
    Acts.16:14 - a certain woman named Lydia heard us. She was a seller of purple from the city of Thyatira, who worshiped God. The Lord opened her heart to heed the things spoken by Paul.
    Acts.18:27 -And when he desired to cross to Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him; and when he arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace;
    Eph.2:8 - by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God,9 not of works, lest anyone should boast.
    Phil.1:29 - For to you it has been granted on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake,
    2Tim.2:25 - in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth,26 and that they may come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by him to do his will.


    D.Key Quotations

    1. Westminster Confession of Faith X, 1,2
    All those whom God has predestined to life, and those only, He is pleased, in His appointed and accepted time, effectually to call, by His Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death, in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation, by Jesus Christ; enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God, taking away their heart of stone, and giving to them a heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by His almighty power determining them to that which is good, and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ; yet so, as they come most freely, being made willing by His grace. This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not from anything at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive therein, until, being made alive and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it.


    2. Westminster Shorter Catechism Question 31

    What is effectual calling? Effectual calling is the work of God's Spirit, whereby, convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ, and renewing our wills, he doth persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ, freely offered to us in the gospel.


    V. PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS
    A. Arminian Position: All who believe and are truly saved can lose their salvation.Sinners can lose their salvation by failing to keep up their faith, by falling into a state of serious sin, etc.

    B. Antinomian Position: (Also known as "Easy Believism") All who make a profession of faith are eternally secure, whether or not they keep up their faith.

    C. Reformed Position: All who are chosen by God, redeemed by Christ, and regenerated by the Holy Spirit are eternally saved. They are kept in Faith by the Power of Almighty God and therefore continue to persevere in faith.



    D. Scriptural Support for the Reformed Position:

    1.The person who truly believes in Jesus Christ HAS new Life that is ETERNAL.
    Jn.3:16 - God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.
    Jn.3:36 - "He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; and he who does not believe the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him."
    Jn.5:24 - Most assuredly, I say to you, he who hears My word and believes in Him who sent Me has everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life.
    Jn.6:47 - Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life.
    Jn.6:51 - "I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world."
    Jn.11.25 - said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live.
    1Jn.5:13 - These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God.
    1Peter.1:23 - having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever,


    2. All those who come to genuine saving faith in Christ are kept secure in him for eternity by the Power of God.

    John.6:35 -40 And Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst.36 "But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe.37 "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.38 "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.39 "This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.40 "And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day."
    Jn.10:27 -30 "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.28 "And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand.29 "My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father's hand.30 "I and My Father are one."
    Jn.17:11 - "Now I am no longer in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to You. Holy Father, keep through Your name those whom You have given Me, that they may be one as We are.12 "While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Your name. Those whom You gave Me I have kept; and none of them is lost except the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.
    Jn.17:15 - I do not pray that You should take them out of the world, but that You should keep them from the evil one.
    Rom.8:29 - For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.
    Rom.8:35 -39 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?36 As it is written: "For Your sake we are killed all day long; We are accounted as sheep for the slaughter."37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.38 For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come,39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
    1Cor.1:8 - who will also confirm you to the end, that you may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
    Eph.1:5 - having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,
    Eph.1:13 - In Him you also trusted, after you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom also, having believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise,14 who is the guarantee of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of His glory.
    Eph.4:30 - And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.
    Phil.1:6 - being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ;
    1Peter.1:3 -Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His abundant mercy has begotten us again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,4 to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled and that does not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,5 who are kept by the power of God through faith for salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.


    3. True believers WILL persevere to the end in faith and obedience by the Power of the Holy Spirit.

    Jn.14:21 -"He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him."
    Jn.15:1 -11 I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser.2 "Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit.3 "You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you.4 "Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me.5 "I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing.6 "If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.7 "If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, you will ask what you desire, and it shall be done for you.8 "By this My Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit; so you will be My disciples.9 "As the Father loved Me, I also have loved you; abide in My love.10 "If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love, just as I have kept My Father's commandments and abide in His love.11 "These things I have spoken to you, that My joy may remain in you, and that your joy may be full.
    Eph.2:10 -For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.
    1Peter.5:10 -But may the God of all grace, who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you.
    2Peter.1:10 Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble;
    Phil.2:12 - Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling;13 for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure.
    Phil.3:12 -Not that I have already attained, or am already perfected; but I press on, that I may lay hold of that for which Christ Jesus has also laid hold of me.13 Brethren, I do not count myself to have apprehended; but one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind and reaching forward to those things which are ahead,14 I press toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.15 Therefore let us, as many as are mature, have this mind; and if in anything you think otherwise, God will reveal even this to you.
    1Jn.3:9 - Whoever has been born of God does not sin, for His seed remains in him; and he cannot sin, because he has been born of God.
    1Jn.5:18 -We know that whoever is born of God does not sin; but he who has been born of God keeps himself, and the wicked one does not touch him.
    Heb.5:11of whom we have much to say, and hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. 12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the first principles of the oracles of God; and you have come to need milk and not solid food.13 For everyone who partakes only of milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, for he is a babe.14 But solid food belongs to those who are of full age, that is, those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.1 Therefore, leaving the discussion of the elementary principles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God,2 of the doctrine of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.3 And this we will do if God permits.4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Holy Spirit,5 and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come,6 if they fall away, to renew them again to repentance, since they crucify again for themselves the Son of God, and put Him to an open shame.7 For the earth which drinks in the rain that often comes upon it, and bears herbs useful for those by whom it is cultivated, receives blessing from God;8 but if it bears thorns and briars, it is rejected and near to being cursed, whose end is to be burned.
    9 But, beloved, we are confident of better things concerning you, yes, things that accompany salvation, though we speak in this manner.10 For God is not unjust to forget your work and labor of love which you have shown toward His name, in that you have ministered to the saints, and do minister.11 And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope until the end,12 that you do not become sluggish, but imitate those who through faith and patience inherit the promises.
    1Jn.2:19They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us; but they went out that they might be made manifest, that none of them were of us.
    1Jn.2:25 And this is the promise that He has promised us: eternal life.


    E. Key Quotations
    1. Westminster Confession of Faith XVII, 1

    They whom God has accepted in His Beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by His Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved.

     

    Thanks to Dory at Whittenburg Gate for permission to publish this on FiveSolas.com.