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I am the Pastor/Teacher of Rivers of Joy Baptist Church in Minford, Ohio since August 2008.  I am married to Charity since June 14, 1969.  I have four grown children.   Having served in the local church for over forty years as Pastor/Teacher, Asso., Youth Pastor, Minister of Education, Building Upkeep, Camp Director, Sunday School Teacher, etc. Also I have worked in the public place for as many years as I have preached. Charity and her sister are co owner of Union Mills Conf. (Bakery) in West Portsmouth Ohio

First Peter Exposition Notes

Charles and Charity Whisnant
These are the notes that I used in the sermon from First Peter 3.
Judge (2919) (krino and its cognatesis a root of English words like critic, critical [kritikos] = a decisive point at which judgment is made) primarily signifies to distinguish, to decide between (in the sense of considering two or more things and reaching a decision), to make up one's mind, to separate, to discriminate. to distinguish between good and evil, right and wrong, without necessarily passing an adverse sentence, although that is often what is usually involved. As you will see from this study, krino has various shades of meaning which must be determined from the context.

The basic meaning is to form an opinion after separating and considering the particulars in the case. Means to evaluate and determine what is right, proper, and expedient for correction.

should be distinguished from a cognate verb katakrino, "to condemn," derived from kata, "down, against," and krínō, "to judge." In Romans 2:1 both verbs are used - "Therefore you are without excuse, every man [of you] who passes judgment (krino), for in that you judge (krino) another, you condemn (katakrino) yourself; for you who judge (krino) practice the same things. The understanding of this verse lies in the proper rendering of what is translated "another" (heteros). It is another who is different than you are. If the only reason you judge another person is because he is different than you are, the basis of your judgment is faulty; and it is no surprise that you will condemn him, for who is better than self! Only God knows the extent of suffering there has been in this world because people have judged their fellowmen by the color or physical features specific to their race. "Undoubtedly much of the warring and rioting and bloodshed in the world today is due to just such judgment." (Zodhiates)
@The word meant originally to separate, then to distinguish, to pick out, to be of opinion, and finally, to judge. The act of judgment was therefore that of forming an accurate and honest opinion of someone, thus, appraising his character, and placing him in a certain position with respect to the law of God. The result of such a judgment is commonly condemnation. (Wuest's word studies from the Greek New Testament)
@The Greek verb means to judge and always involves the process of thinking through a situation and coming to a conclusion.
The term could be used in a narrowly judicial sense but it also has several nuances related to judging in a more general sense. In nonjudicial contexts, can mean to select, prefer, decide, consider.In the NT, most often refers to judging something or someone in general.
However, the word does occur in specific judicial settings several times, and the court can be human (Mt 5:40; Jn 7:51; 18:31; Ac 23:3; 24:21; 25:9-10,20; 26:6; 1Co 6:1,6) or divine (Jn 5:22,30; 12:48; Ac 17:31; Ro 2:16; 3:4-7; 2Tim 4:1; 1Pe 4:5; Rev 20:12-13).
In two passages, krino is used with the meaning to rule. Jesus said that the twelve apostles would judge the twelve tribes of Israel "in the Messianic Age" (Mt 19:28), and here krino likely means to rule, as the verse's reference to sitting on thrones would imply. Similarly, Paul's statement that the saints would judge the world and angels (1Co 6:2-3) probably means that believers will rule over them both in the future kingdom (cp. Rev 2:26-27). (Holman Christian Study Bible-enter 1 Corinthians 6 - Click "Read" under Study Bible Notes)
Also means "to form a proper appreciation of anything by discriminating between two or more things," to divide or separate and thus, "to form a judgment." The idea is to sift out and analyze evidence.
The primary meaning of "to judge in the sense of discerning something" or "to reach a decision about something." The decision in the case of krino can be either for or against someone.
However, many times it denotes a decision of condemnation in which the guilty party is handed over for punishment. It is used in this sense in Acts 13:27. Here Paul said that the Jewish leaders fulfilled the words of the Old Testament prophets in condemning Jesus.
When one judges in their own mind as to what is right, proper, expedient the idea is that they decide or determine.
Another sense is to form and express a judgment or opinion as to any person or thing, whether favorable or unfavorable (Jn 8:15).
Or it could means to hold a view or have an opinion with regard to something (Acts 15:19).
Finally, means to judge in the classic judicial sense (decide a question of legal right or wrong, and thus determine the innocence or guilt of the accused and assign appropriate punishment or retribution) (John 18:31), some of these uses referring to eschatological (future) judgment by God (or Jesus -Jn 5:30, 2Ti 4:1, 1Pe 4:5, Rev 19:11) (Jn 5:22, 8:50, Acts 17:31, Ro 2:16, 3:6, etc). One of the most incredible passages (to me) is "Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judged by you, are you not competent [to] [constitute] the smallest law courts?" (1Cor 6:2)

- The word translated "judgment" in the New Testament is krisis, and the verb, "to judge," is krino. This root is seen in many English words, including "crisis" (a decisive time when judgment must be made) and "critical" (a decisive point at which judgment is seen). The elementary meaning is to make a judgment. In early Greek the word was related to the supposed activities of the gods, who were guardians of rights and customs. They judged those actions which conflicted with their rights or customs. If people violated these basic rules of life, it was believed that the gods would punish (or judge) either the violaters or their children. When the word was taken up in the Septuagint Greek Old Testament it took on a Hebrew flavor. In the Old Testament it was Jehovah God who judged between right and wrong. The standard for judgment was His holy Law, handed down at Sinai. (New Testament Words in Today’s Language)

MacArthur - In the New Testament, (to judge) has numerous shades of meaning, ranging from the broad and usually positive sense of forming an opinion or of resolving an issue (As in Luke 7:43; Acts 4:19) to the immeasurably more serious and negative sense of condemning or damning (As in John 12:48; Acts 13:27; 2 Thess. 2:12). (2 Timothy. Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press)
- Like the English verb "judge," the Greek word krinō can mean "form an opinion" (Lk 7:43). But normally in the NT it describes the passing of a sentence—either in a law-court (Mt 5:40) or metaphorically with reference to divine judgment (Mt 7:1–2; Jn 5:22, 30). Often the focus is on the negative aspect of condemnation (Mt 7:1; Jn 3:17–18). (Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press)
Broadly speaking, can have either a legal, judicial sense or a casual sense of personal preference.
summarized - Primary meaning: ‘to set apart so as to distinguish, separate’, then by transference
(1) to make a selection = to select, prefer (Ro 14:5)
(2) to pass judgment upon (and thereby seek to influence) the lives and actions of other people (a) judge, pass judgment upon, express an opinion about Mt 7:1, 2; Lk 6:37; (b) Especially to pass an unfavorable judgment upon, criticize, find fault with, condemn (Ro 2:1, 14:3-4)
(3) to make a judgment based on taking various factors into account = to judge, think, consider, look upon. (you do not consider yourselves worthy Acts 13:46; you considered their shortcomings as your own 1 Clement 2:6; to decide whether it is right to obey you rather than God Acts 4:19)
(4) to come to a conclusion after a cognitive process = to reach a decision, decide, propose, intend (Acts 3:13, 20:16, 25:25, 1Cor 2:2, 5:3, Titus 3:12)
(5) to engage in a judicial process = to judge, decide, hale before a court, condemn, also hand over for judicial punishment. (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature)
Primarily "to judge," primarily signifies to separate, to select, to choose, to distinguish; then, to distinguish between right and wrong, without necessarily passing an adverse sentence, though this is usually involved. Katakrino, a strengthened form of krinō; always denotes "to pass an adverse sentence". (Vine)
"The uses of this verb in the NT may be analyzed as follows:
(a) to assume the office of a judge, Mt 7:1; Jn 3:17;
(b) to undergo process of trial, John 3:18; 16:11; 18:31; James 2:12;
(c) to give sentence, Acts 15:19; 16:4; 21:25;
(d) to condemn, Jn 12:48; Acts 13:27; Ro 2:27;
(e) to execute judgment upon, 2Th 2:12; Acts 7:7;
(f) to be involved in a lawsuit, whether as plaintiff, Mt 5:40; 1Cor 6:1; or as defendant, Acts 23:6;
(g) to administer affairs, to govern, Mt 19:28; cp. Jdg 3:10;
(h) to form an opinion, Lk 7:43; Jn 7:24; Acts 4:19; Ro 14:5;
(i) to make a resolve, Acts 3:13; 20:16; 1Cor 2:2" (Judge - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words)
(partially summarized) - To separate, put asunder, distinguish. To pick out, choose. to choose the best, passive - to be chosen out, distinguished, admit to a class, number in it (numbered among), esp. of admitting as a competitor in games. (2) decide disputes, judge crooked judgments, they decide the question, by what do you form this judgment? b. decide a contest, e.g. for a prize. (3) adjudge, the sum adjudged to be paid, etc, etc. (very long and detailed - if interested see original entry in L-S)
from a basic meaning divide out or separate off; (1) as making a personal evaluation think of as better, prefer (Ro 14.5); (2) as forming a personal opinion evaluate, think, judge (Acts 13.46; (3) as reaching a personal or group decision resolve, determine, decide (Acts 16.4); (4) as passing a personal judgment on someone’s actions judge, criticize (Mt 7.1); often in a negative sense condemn, find fault with (Jas 4.11); (5) as a legal technical term; (a) in a human court judge, condemn, hand over for punishment (Jn 7.51); passive be on trial, be judged (Acts 25.10); middle/passive go to law, sue (1Cor 6.6); (b) of God’s judging judge, administer justice; with an obviously negative verdict condemn, punish (2Th 2.12); (6) Hebraistically, in a broader sense rule, govern (Lk 22.30) (Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament- Barbara Friberg and Neva F. Mille Timothy Friberg).
In the NT ‘to judge’ is always a translation of krinein or its compounds, although krino is frequently rendered by other words than ‘judge.’ The primary meaning of krino is to separate, put asunder . Through the derivative signification (krino can convey the sense of) to search into, to investigate. Krino came to mean to choose, prefer, determine, to decide moral questions or disputes after examination, to judge . In this last sense it is used of the authoritative decisions Christ will declare as to conduct and destiny at the general judgment of the last day. When krino is not rendered by ‘judge’ in the NT, it always involves the kindred meaning of reaching a decision, or of action consequent upon a decision. In a number of instances it means to determine to pursue the course decided upon as best. Paul had determined (krino) to sail past Ephesus (Acts 20:16); he determined not to know anything among the Corinthians save Jesus Christ and Him crucified (1Cor 2:2); not to come to them in sorrow (2Cor 2:1). The Jews denied Jesus before Pilate when he was determined (κρίναντος ) to let Him go (Acts 3:13 , See also Acts 24:21 , Acts 25:25 , 1Cor 7:37 ). In Mt 5:40 krino is rendered ‘go to law’ and other forms are rendered ‘condemn’ (Acts 13:27), ‘called in question’ (Acts 24:21), ‘ordained’ (Acts 16:4), ‘esteemeth’ (Ro 14:5).
1. Judging by men permitted and commended .—The right to pass judgment upon both the actions of men and their characters as manifested in their conduct is implied in the power of rational and moral discrimination which all possess. Its exercise is also made imperative by the very nature of things. Men must form an opinion not only of the quality of deeds, but also of those who do them, if there is to be the prudent and wise action in our necessary relations to others, which shall be best for us and for them. Paul recognizes this power of moral judgment in even the heathen (Ro 2:14-16). To this, truth and right conduct may confidently appeal (2Cor 4:2). He commends those who exercise it upon all moral questions, and bold fast the good it approves, and abstain from the evil it condemns (1Th 5:21-22). It is to this moral judgment that all true teaching and preaching appeal. Our Lord assumes that all have the power to know the quality of outward deeds of men, and lays down the principle that the quality of the man corresponds with that of his deeds (Mt 7:15-19), and, therefore, that we can form a right judgment of men, when the fruitage of their lives matures, however much they may seek to hide under false pretences. To this great principle of judging our Lord made frequent appeal in His controversies with the Pharisees. The Satanic conduct of these leaders proved them the children of the devil,—as having his nature (Jn 8:38-44),—while His own works made it plain He was from God (Jn 5:36; Jn 10:25 etc.). Even in Mt 7:1-5 , in connection with our Lord’s strongest condemnation of judging, it is implied (Mt 7:2; Mt 7:5) that men may judge others guilty of faults and help to cure them of the failings discovered, if they but be free enough from faults themselves to have the clearest discernment. He also censures the Jews (Lk 12:57 ) because they do not judge what is right as to the Messianic time of His preaching, as they do the signs of the sky, and are therefore in danger of arraignment and condemnation at the highest tribunal. .
2. The judging which is condemned
(a) That prompted by a wrong spirit. Of this kind is that forbidden by our Lord in Mt 7:1-4 . It is prompted by a critical and censorious spirit . The man possessed by this disposition subjects others to searching scrutiny to find out faults. Where even the smallest defects are discovered, he becomes so absorbed in them that he is oblivious alike of his own greater faults and the greater virtues which may be associated with the minor faults of others. Those who are critical of others in order to find something to blame, instead of being critical of themselves in order to become fitted to help them, will but bring upon themselves from God as well as from men the condemnation they are so ready to mete out to others (see also Lk 6:37).
(b) Judging according to false or inadequate principles or standards. In Jn 7:23-24; cf. Jn 5:8 , our Lord condemns judging upon superficial principles —mere literal conformity to outward rules. Had the Jews seen the deeper intent of the Sabbath law, they would not have condemned Him for apparently breaking it by healing a man on that day. It was this superficial standard of judging—on literal and mere legal grounds rather than upon the deeper underlying principles—which constituted judging after the flesh rather than after the spirit. It is only the judging after the spirit that is righteous and to be commended (Jn 8:15). It is for this reason that the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit, but he that is spiritual judges (anakrino) all things (1Cor 2:14). The one has in his nature only that to which the mere outward and superficial appeals—the other has in him that in which the deepest inner principles of life and action find a response. The latter, through this sensitive response of his nature to the deepest truths, can give strict judgment as to their character. (Judging by Men - Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament)
- The basic meaningsinclude:
(1) "To separate, to distinguish"; from that comes
(2) "to pick, choose"; and (3) "to judge, to decide" (especially in legal contexts). Added meanings such as "to estimate, interpret," also fall under this third category. A fourth meaning for krinō is "to bring to trial" (and subsequently "condemn/ punish"). The term customarily has legal overtones, but not necessarily always. The legal sense of "to judge" is most significant in the New Testament....From the overall perspective of the Synoptic Gospels it appears that the writers integrated fully the Old Testament understanding of the Day of the Lord as well as later Jewish concepts. The concept that God would judge all men, prevalent in Pharisaic Judaism, emerges in such texts as M 7:2 (parallel Lk 6:37; cf. Lk 22:30; Mk 12:40). Judgment language may accompany the proclamation to repent (Mt 3:10) in light of the arrival of God’s Messiah. Here the coming of salvation will concomitantly bring judgment. Unless one repents and responds to God’s mercy he or she will be judged instead of saved (cf. Büchsel, ibid., 3:936, who points out how many of the parables and debates assume a consequence of judgment). (Complete Biblical Library - Greek-English Dictionary - Ralph W.; Gilbrant, Thoralf Harris) I bought this set one volumn at a time in Altoona, Kansas

"What does the verb krino mean? In classical Greek it first meant "to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose" (Thayer). Later it conveyed the sense: "to determine, resolve, decree," and then "to pronounce an opinion concerning right and wrong." In the passive (as here) it meant "to be judged," that is, "summoned to trial that one's case may be examined and judgment passed upon it."

Thayer continues: "Where the context requires, used of condemnatory judgment, i.q. to condemn" (p. 361).

Abbott-Smith notes that sometimes in the NT it is used as the equivalent of katakrino, which properly means "condemn." In fact, the simple verb krill() is translated "condemn" five times in the KJV.

Arndt and Gingrich note that krino came to be used as a legal technical term meaning "judge, decide, hale before a court, condemn ... hand over for judicial punishment" (p. 452). They write: "Often the emphasis is unmistakably laid upon that which follows the Divine Judge's verdict, upon the condemnation or punishment." And so the verb comes to mean "condemn, punish" (p. 453).